L49, Simple Heat Sensor


Here is a simple circuit which can be used as a heat sensor. In the following circuit diagram thermistor and 100 Ohms resistance is connected in series and makes a potential divider circuit. If thermistor is N.T.C (Negative temperature Co-efficient type) then after heating the thermistor its resistance decreases so more current flows through the thermistor and 100 Ohms resistance and we get more voltage at junction of thermistor and resistance. Suppose after heating 110 ohm’s thermistor its resistance value become 90 ohms.


Then according to potential divider circuit the voltage across one resistor equals the ratio of that resistor’s value and the sum of resistances times the voltage across the series combination. This concept is so pervasive it has a name: voltage divider. The input-output relationship for this system, found in this particular case by voltage divider, takes the form of a ratio of the output voltage to the input voltage.


This output voltage is applied to a NPN transistor through a resistance. Emitter voltage is maintained at 4.7 volt with a help of Zener diode. This voltage we will use as compare voltage. Transistor conducts when base voltage is greater than emitter voltage. Transistor conducts as it gets more than 4.7 base Voltage and circuit is completed through buzzer and it gives Sound.


Please use 220 Ohms thermistor if not available you can use 2pcs of 110 Ohms thermistor in series. Resistance parallel with Zener diode is not necessary.

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